Pain

Pain

There is no apparent answer to the horros of life. In contrast, there have been some unfortunate events happening in my family, but we are so so lucky. So lucky we are together and truly treasure it. My thoughts are with those hurt and killed in Boston.

This is actually a french word. Taken from Paul's wall. My wife was very happy to know that there is Paul in Hsinchu, too. Her happiness at the time from her bed makes me feel that I am a hero. Sort of. Pain can be essential, like food. It is okay to admit it.

TextExpander and writing on iOS devise

 

TextExpander and writing on iOS device.

As some of you know, my wife has just broke her bone. It means weeks, if not months, recovery time. It also means that I, more than always, have to spend time taking care of the kids. It is thus very difficult to find time sitting in front of my computer, more than ever. I will then have to find time writing on my iOS device. There are some useful tools for writing on those tiny devises.

My students would know how much I love the tools that save some tiny bits of time. Things like keyboard shortcuts. It is no surprise that I will use TextExpander Touch on my iPhone. One can take full advantage in using sets devised by Brett Terpstra in Brett’s snippet set for IOS. I am still learning, but this set is truly amazing. For example, when I copied the link from a browser, I can then come back to my text editor and type three characters (so called snippets) and the link is set according to the Markdown language for links. Pretty cool.

Taipei Street

Now that we have moved to Zhubei, and even thoughit has just been several days, and lots of unlucky events have happened, it really feels like home here. I don’t miss Taipei. At least for now. But it just feels right to post some street shots from TP that I have access to at the moment as a token of appreciation. For a place I have lived for years.

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覆水難收:添附的物權變動與債權調整

物權法筆記 第八回

覆水難收:添附的物權變動與債權調整

如同之前所說明,物權法的基本架構如下:

物權種類
物權得喪變更
物權內容

於添附的情形,就是在處理所有權此一物權種類,所發生之得喪變更之情形。

從動產所有人的角度,其對於特定動產之所有權,會因為添附的發生,而產生變化。其變化主要有下列四種:

§ 811: 不動產附合

動產與不動產附合,即該動產成為不動產之重要成分。換言之,即該動產非經毀損或變更其性質,不能分離。

  1. 此時因為不動產種類不同,又可分成兩種狀態,即
    • 動產與土地附合,以及
    • 動產與定著物附合兩種。
  2. 動產與土地附合,如肥料施於土地,土地所有人取得肥料所有權。至於於土地上種植茶樹、桐樹,亦同(注意實務上曾有不同見解)。
  3. 動產與定著物/建物附合。凡是裝潢或增建,均可能屬之。
  4. 於增建,須確認該增建物是否與原建物附合,還是該增建物是否獨立可為物權客體(而於大部份情形下,成為由出資建造者取得所有權之違章建築)。
  5. 增建物,其判斷標準為構造上與使用上之獨立性。如欠缺獨立出入門戶,則應認為已經附合而成為原建物之重要成分。
  6. 增建部分之所有權狀態88年台上字第148號判決
    — 獨立之建築物:具備構造上及使用上獨立性者(其中假如常助原有建築物之效用,而交易上無特別習慣者,屬於從物)。
    — 欠缺構造上及使用上之獨立性:如增建部分與原有建築物無任何可資區別之標識存在,而與之作為一體使用者,不具備構造上及使用上之獨立性,原有建築物所有權範圍因而擴張。
    — 有構造上獨立性,欠缺使用上獨立性:如增建部分已具構造上之獨立性,但未具使用上之獨立性而常助原有建築物之效用者,則為附屬物-其使用上與原有建築物成為一體,其所有權應歸於消滅。

§ 812: 動產附合

動產與他人動產附合,產生 1. 各動產所有人共有合成物之物權變動;或 2. 由主物所有人取得合成物所有權-換言之,非屬主物動產的所有權則消滅。

§ 813: 動產混合

不能識別:準用動產附合之規定。

§ 814: 動產之加工

加工於他人之動產(材料)者,加工物所有權:
1. 屬於材料所有人;或
2. 屬於加工人,如加工所增價額顯逾材料之價值者。

加工之要件
1. 材料為動產(產出的結果=加工物不必是動產) 2. 材料須為他人所有 3. 製成新物(通說):否則材料仍為原物,不生所有權消滅之問題。 * 注意有力說採否定見解。理由如下:
* 法條未規定 * 以社會交易觀念決定是否為新物徒增困擾 * 應著重於鼓勵經濟價值之創造

加工人判斷
* 對生產過程具有經濟上支配力-雇主(企業)、提供材料之定作人。 * 強行規定。

§815: 其他權利隨同消滅之所有權而消滅。

不消滅的所有權,其上權利則不受影響。

債法上的調整

  1. §816:不當得利規定,請求償金。
  2. __構成要件__之準用。非法律效果之準用。不當得利之所有要件,仍須具備。僅§§811–815之規定,非屬此處法律上之原因,以及僅得請求償金而已。
  3. 如係基於給付關係(債之關係)發生,取得所有權多具有法律上原因,不當得利要件不具備,無§816之適用。
  4. 包括§815條喪失他物權之人。
  5. 強迫得利:侵權行為、占有人費用償還請求權排除§816、所受利益不存在、惡意抗辯權。